Leonhard Rauwolf

Leonhard Rauwolf lived between 1535 and 1596 AD. He was a German traveler that studied and documented medicine, botany, and culture in the land East of the Mediterranean Sea. His studies were published in 1582 in a book called Dr. Leonhart Rauwolf's Travels into the Eastern Countries. In this book he mentioned seeing fruit called Bunn prepared into Buncham, which was good for the stomach. His observations also said that the people drink coffee "in the morning early in the open places before everybody, without any fear or regard, out of clay ... cups, as hot as they can, sipping it a little at a time."

Rauwolf's account matches the writings of Avicenna, which helps validate that Avicenna was writing about the coffee we're familiar with today. His bookpoints out that coffee and was used by the whole people, not just in medicine. It had become a customary beverage in the Middle East, but still had not spread into Europe.